PAPER 2 INSTRUCTIONS The Rise of the Papacy In the void left by the collapse of the Roman Empire, the bishop of Rome grew even more in both power and prestige beginning in the 6th–9th centuries. There were both positive and negative ramifications of this reality. Write a 5-page research paper (12-point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins on all sides, double-spaced) on how and why the papacy in Rome became the center of power as it did. What factors contributed to its dominance of Western Europe until the Reformation? What were the positive and negative ramifications of this reality? Use 5 scholarly sources. Your textbook does not count. You may use scholarly websites, but also use at least 2 scholarly articles and/or books. You can find scholarly articles through the Liberty University Library (which you used in the research exercise). If you need help finding scholarly books, you can Be careful to choose scholarly sources; do not use Wikipedia or blogs. If you are uncertain if a source is scholarly, feel free to send an email with the source information to your instructor; he will let you know. Use current Turabian reference styling when preparing your references. Submit your completed paper as an attachment through SafeAssign by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 5. Also upload your paper to the proper Discussion Board Forum at the same time. Second Paper Instructions Also this week you will need to turn in your second paper. The time period covered will be the 6th though the 9th Centuries. You have studied about the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the void that was left which the Catholic Church filled. This was done with an increase in the prestige and power of the papacy and the growth of the monasteries. In this next time period, from 500 through to 900, you will look at the further development of the Catholic Church. (Please stay in the time period, although you can mention events right before and just after.) Briefly, its growth began in the fourth century when Constantine decided to move the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople in 330. By the 400s this had caused a power vacuum to develop in Europe and resulted in the destruction of the city of Rome. The Catholic Church stepped in to fill this vacuum, and resulted in their gaining much power during this time period (400s to late 600s) in the southern part of Europe. (Which you covered in one of the paragraph summaries from the 2RE.) In the 700s the Frankish kingdom gained great power (even defeating the Muslim invasion into Europe in 732) and the Catholic Church saw a further rise in its influence in the late 700s and early 800s (with Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance). Two names you will want to focus on: Gregory I and Charlemagne. Gregory I was pope from 590 to 604 and is considered by many to be one of the greatest popes. Be sure to discuss the circumstances in the area prior to his becoming pope and how he increased the control of the papacy in his region as a result of responding to his circumstances. Charlemagne was the Frankish (what we would call French) emperor in the late 700s. He was able to bring much of central and southern Europe under his control. Be sure to discuss how he was able to gain so much control politically, how he spread Christianity to such a large area, his relationship to the papacy, and his influence on Catholicism. In addition, he began what is known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Discuss the implications of this Renaissance in the development of religious education, which caused Christianity to solidify in the new areas it found itself in. I suggest you look at both these people under Wikipedia for an overview, but do not use it as a reference/footnote. Go to for a more detailed look at these individuals. If you need another source, this one is great for Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance: You can skip over the information about Boethius and the Venerable Bede. Also, the article only mentions the phrase "Carolingian Renaissance" once toward the end, but it describes the rebirth of learning, which was the essence of the Carolingian Renaissance. Three notes: • Your paper will focus on Pope Gregory I and Charlemagne plus the Carolingian Renaissance, but you also need to include other people as well. Gregory was pope from 590 – 604 and Charlemagne was king of the Franks from 768 on and was Emperor from 800 to his death in 814. You will need to fill in the gaps by discussing popes before Gregory, in between the two, and after Charlemagne. • Many students write papers that basically are biographies of Gregory I and Charlemagne. Remember that the topic of the paper is answering the question of how the papacy gained power in the time from 500-900. Therefore, an above average paper will attempt to also discuss the impact the two men had on the rise of the power of the papacy. • Do not chart the history of the papacy from Peter until the sixth century, and do not carry the history of the papacy past 900. • Do not cover the rise of Islam, since it did not help with the rise of papal power.

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The Rise of the Papacy paper