STUDENT NAME:                             SECTION:  013

 

WRITE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT IN X should Y FORMAT or other:

 

People in the UAE should stop the producing and consuming tobacco as it leads to harmful consequences, such as impacting the society, destroying the environment and hurting human health.

 

OppOp1:

Decreases the risk of having Parkinson’s disease

Explain: Smoking have been known that it helps in reducing the risk of having Parkinson’s disease. An epidemiologist named Harold Kahn have analyzed almost 300,000 health records that belongs to old soldiers who had served in the US military between 1917 and 1940. Hence that analyzing have resulted that soldiers who do not smoke are three times more likely to die of Parkinson’s disease than soldiers who smoke.

 

BP AREA/PLAN TOPIC 1:  Society

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT ONE: Secondhand smoke

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  1: Pregnant women ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “New research suggests that women who smoke during pregnancy or breathe secondhand smoke can pass cancer-causing chemicals into their fetus’ blood, where they can linger for months. Dr. Stephen Myers of the University of Louisville conducted the study; his research group plans on following the newborn children in his study to determine if those exposed to tobacco chemicals in the womb have a higher risk of tumors.” (Jordan, 1996)
      APA CITATION 1: Jordan, L. (1996, Big tobacco’s deadly deceits. Midwest Today, , 6-13. Retrieved from https://sks.sirs.com

 

                  

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “Maternal secondhand smoke exposure is associated with preterm birth7, 8 and low birth weight.9-11 Estimates of the mean decrease in weight calculated by various reviews range from around 30 g to 60 g, and secondhand smoke exposure has been demonstrated to increase the risk of low birthweight <3500g by up to 22%.” (Campbell MA, Ford C, & Winstanley MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 2: Campbell MA, Ford C, & Winstanley MH. (n.d.). Secondhand smoke and pregnancy. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-4-secondhand/4-16-secondhand-smoke-and-pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2: Children ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “many victims of exposure to secondhand smoke are children or even unborn babies. Because these effects occur at early ages, the number of years of healthy life lost due to sickness, disability or early death related to secondhand smoke in children is much higher than in adults.” (Mackay, J., Eriksen, M. P., Schluger, N. W., Gomeshtapeh, F. I., & Drope, J., 2006)
      APA CITATION 1: Mackay, J., Eriksen, M. P., Schluger, N. W., Gomeshtapeh, F. I., & Drope, J. (2006). The tobacco atlas: Secondhand smoke. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoatlas.org/topic/secondhand-smoke/

 

                  

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “Children exposed to secondhand smoke in the home have a 35% increased risk for middle ear disease, and a 46% increased risk if their mother smokes.18 Moreover, ear disease in children of smokers appears less likely to resolve spontaneously than among children of non-smokers.3 This has important implications for child health.” (Campbell MA, Ford C, & Winstanley MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 2: Campbell MA, Ford C, & Winstanley MH. (n.d.). Health effects of secondhand smoke for infants and children. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-4-secondhand/4-17-health-effects-of-secondhand-smoke-for-infants

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT TWO: Family

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  1: Divorce ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “A 1990s study by Eric Doherty and William J. Doherty of the University of Minnesota has found that smokers have an increased risk (53%) of divorce. Apparently, age, race, education, income or gender makes no difference.”

(Stritof, 2017)

      APA CITATION 1: Stritof, S. (2017, May 03). Smoking Tied to Divorce and Marital Health Issues. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from https://www.thespruce.com/smoking-tied-to-divorce-marital-health-2302985

 

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2: Adolescents

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “Parental smoking is another way in which parents affect their adolescent’s smoking, either directly or indirectly. According to the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) direct influence is exerted when parents set an example or function as a (role) model, and these adolescents observe and imitate their parents’ behavior.”

 

      APA CITATION 1: Harakeh, Z., Scholte, R. J., Vermulst, A. A., de Vries, H., & Engels, R. E. (2010). The Relations Between Parents’ Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents’ Smoking. Journal Of Research On Adolescence (Wiley-Blackwell), 20(1), 140-165. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00626.x

 

OppOp2:

Stress removal

Explain: The first response that a smoker gives you after asking them about the reason behind their smoking is that it makes them feel relaxed. Because they think that the nicotine helps with relieving stress. Indeed, they believe that cigarettes prepare circumstances where they can overcome being stressed, depressed ore anxious. Moreover, the inhaling and exhaling pattern that smokers practice contributes to reducing stress levels too.

 

BP AREA/PLAN TOPIC 2:  Environment

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT ONE: Air

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  1:  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Pollution

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “Altogether 6.5 million people worldwide are estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) to have died prematurely in 2012 because of air pollution. This means that of the 56 million deaths worldwide in 2012, 11.6% or one in nine were attributable to air pollution. In comparison, there were 5 million deaths from all injuries including from road accidents (1.3 million deaths), falls, fires, and war in 2012, according to WHO data. Indeed, air pollution may have become one of the top killers. Tobacco use, usually described as the world’s leading preventable cause of death, is responsible for nearly 6 million deaths annually, or around 10% of total deaths.”(Khor, 2016)

 

      APA CITATION 1: Khor, M. (2016, 11 Nov). Air pollution emerges as a top killer globally – part 1. Inter Press Service Retrieved from https://sks.sirs.com

 

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2:  Global warming ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “Global warming is caused by the massive increase of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.” (Maslin, 2004)
      APA CITATION 1: Maslin, M. (2004). Global warming : a very short introduction. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

 

                              

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “In 2006, British American Tobacco estimated that production of one million cigarettes generated 0.79 tonnes of carbon dioxide, which would mean that roughly 4,740,000 tonnes would be produced annually by global cigarette manufacturing.47 Other analyses suggest that this figure significantly underestimates emission levels. In 2002, modelling by Carnegie Mellon University’s Green Design Institute estimated that the United States tobacco industry, alone, produced around 16 million tonnes of carbon, the annual emission equivalent of 4.4 million cars” (MacKenzie, R., Freeman, B., & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 2: MacKenzie, R., Freeman, B., & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.). The environmental impact of tobacco production. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-10-tobacco-industry/10-14-the-environmental-impact-of-tobacco-producti

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT TWO: Land

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  1:  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Pollution

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “The manufacturing of tobacco products also produces an immense amount of waste. In 1995, the global tobacco industry produced an estimated 2.3 billion kilograms of manufacturing waste and 209 million kilograms of chemical waste. This does not include the enormous amount of litter caused by cigarette butts, which are not bio-degradable.” (Bellagio statement, 1995)
      APA CITATION 1: Bellagio statement. (1995, June). Environmental issues. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://www.who.int/tobacco/research/economics/rationale/environment/en/

 

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2:  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Trees destroyed

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “The land that has been destroyed or degraded to grow tobacco has effects on nearby farms. As forests, for example, are cleared to make way for tobacco plantations, then the soil protection it provides is lost and is more likely to be washed away in heavy rains. This can lead to soil degradation and failing yields.” (Shah, 2014)
      APA CITATION 1: Shah, A. (2014, January 05). Tobacco: Tobacco production damages the environment. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.globalissues.org/article/533/tobacco#Tobaccoproductiondamagestheenvironment

 

                              

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “Deforestation for tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.” (Novotny, T. E., Aguinaga Bialous, S., Burt, L., Curtis, C., Luiza da Costa, V., Usman Iqtidar, S., & … Tursan d’Espaignet, E., 2015)
      APA CITATION 2: Novotny, T. E., Aguinaga Bialous, S., Burt, L., Curtis, C., Luiza da Costa, V., Usman Iqtidar, S., & … Tursan d’Espaignet, E. (2015). The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 93(12), 877-880. doi:10.2471/BLT.15.152744

 

OppOp3:

Weight control

Explain: People have always believed that smoking helps them to control their weight. On the average non-smokers usually weigh seven pounds more than smokers. Indeed, smokers tend to gain weight when they try to quit smoking. And the reason behind that is that smoking reduces the sensibility of taste and smell which minimizes the person’s appetite. Moreover, recent scientific studies explained how nicotine which is one the cigarettes ingredients controls and restraints appetite, clarifying that weight loss in a more realistic way.

 

 

BP AREA/PLAN TOPIC 3:  Human Health

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT ONE: Cancer

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT 1: lung cancer

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “Lung cancer is now the most common type of cancer in the world. In 2008, the number of new cases that occurred was estimated to be 1.1 million with just under 949 000 deaths occurring in the same year.” (Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 1: Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.).  Lung cancer. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-4-lung-cancer

 

                              

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “Inactivation of a number of tumour-suppressor genes, and activation of a number of oncogenes that promote cancer, are thought to be part of the development of lung cancer. These inactivations and activations occur as a consequence of mutations. For example, 90% of patients with small-cell lung cancer, and 15% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, have loss of function of the RB tumour-suppressor gene, and the TP53 tumour-suppressor gene is mutated and inactivated in 70% of patients with small-cell lung cancer and 50% of non-small cell lung cancer patients.” (Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 2: Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.). Smoking and cancer. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-3-smoking-and-cancer

 

 

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2: Loss of normal cell growth control mechanisms

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “For example, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are the first line of contact between cells and cigarette smoke, are believed to be activated by NNK and by nicotine. This activation of nAChRs then promotes the processes required for the development of lung cancer”

(Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)

      APA CITATION 1: Hurley, S, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.). Smoking and cancer. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-3-smoking-and-cancer

 

 

 

  1. TRANSITION POINT TWO: Heart diseases

 

 

SUPPORT SUBJECT  1: Coronary heart disease

 

 

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 1: “Smoking is a cause of CHD,3,6 increasing the risk of disease incidence by between two- and four-fold, the risk increasing with heaviness of smoking.7 Smoking in adolescence and young adulthood is also associated with an increased risk of coronary artery atherosclerosis in adulthood.8 Even light smoking significantly increases the risk of dying from CHD, the steepest increase in risk occurring in smokers of up to four cigarettes a day” (Briffa, T, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)
      APA CITATION 1: Briffa, T, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.). Smoking and heart disease. Retrieved October 14, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-1-smoking-and-heart-disease

 

     

SUPPORT SUBJECT  2: Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

 

                  

      SPECIFIC SUPPORT 2: “One in five people experiencing their first stroke episode will die within four weeks, and one in three will die within 12 months. Among the people who survive the first month after their first-ever stroke, about half will survive five years.12 Stroke is a major cause of disability in Australia. By the end of the first year following a stroke, about half of stroke survivors still require assistance with daily activities.12

Smoking is an important cause of stroke, with the risk of having a stroke rising with the amount of tobacco smoked.3,13 Smokers are one and a half times more likely to have a stroke than non-smokers” (Briffa, T, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH., n.d.)

      APA CITATION 2: Briffa, T, Greenhalgh, EM & Winstanley, MH. (n.d.). Smoking and heart disease. Retrieved October 14, 2017, from http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-1-smoking-and-heart-disease

 

Tobacco impacting the society, destroying the environment and hurting human health.