DBA 822 – Seminar in Strategy and International Business

I. Course Description and content
From the GGU catalogue: Covers the theory and practice of developing and implementing
strategies for gaining competitive advantage in the global business environment. Students
will master the theoretical body of knowledge in the field of strategic management and
consider a variety of empirical approaches used to research the competitive strategy
process. Students will explore the accelerating globalization of industries, regionalization
of competition, and the institutional contexts that both facilitate and impede the formation
and implementation of strategies globally. They will consider such emerging topics as
organizational change, competitive dynamics, development of firm resources and
capabilities, sustainable competitive advantage, regional approaches to competitive
strategy, and the formation of new organizational forms such as strategic alliances and
inter-firm networks.
On the one hand, strategy has been described as a singular discipline that is developing a
body of knowledge concerned with a top-level managerial process of creating competitive
advantage for a firm. On the other, strategy has been described as an arena, in which
theoretical developments from many different disciplines are integrated in addressing the
issues of developing competitive advantage. MBA courses, practitioners, and prescriptive
authors generally treat strategy from the first perspective, largely because of the
straightforward simplicity of this point of view. In this seminar, we will take the second
perspective, and encourage an open examination of the underlying concepts and competing
theories to the first perspective – the dominant strategy paradigm as presented in
undergraduate and graduate strategy texts.
Additionally the course will take up the issue of global strategy as a major theme. An
international or global perspective in the strategic management of a company has become
so crucial, that any strategy must really be considered as a global strategy. However, that
said, what does it mean to have a global strategy? In what ways is this different from a
normal business strategy? What changes when competition crosses national boundaries?
And what is different about strategies that must consider cross-border competition? It is
the purpose of this course to explore these issues. In the process we will look at foreign
competitive environments, differing business methods, and varied approaches to adapting
managerial and organizational processes to new and different conditions.
The approach of the course is theoretical and research driven. Our goal is to develop
linkages between the practical and prescriptive oriented problem solving literature of the
MBA perspective, and the more theoretical and research driven literature of the more
eclectic body of thought.
II. Course Objectives
This seminar is designed to explore the theory, research, and practice in the field of
business policy and strategy. We shall be studying not just theories of strategy, but the
process of theorizing about strategy. That is you are expected to extend the ideas of our
readings and discussions in creative ways, and not simply master existing theories and their
practical applications. Accordingly we will be adopting a critical approach to discussing
theoretical topics, research approaches, practical applications, and controversial issues. My
objective is an ambitious one: to make you the most creative, rigorous, articulate, leading
edge thinkers and applied practitioners that you can possibly become.
On a more pragmatic level: Students are expected to (1) become familiar with the theories,
terminology and practice associated with strategic management at both the practitioner and
the academic levels, (2) develop your research and analytic skills in developing theoretical
arguments, (3) develop the ability to integrate theories from the academic level into
relevant proscriptive analysis, and (4) to improve your skills in oral and written
III. Prerequisites
DBA 801, DBA 803, and DBA 820, or the permission of the instructor.
IV. Course Requirements, Expectations, and Evaluations
Your scholarship will be evaluated on the basis of your: (a) term research paper, (b) class
participation, and (c) final examination. Your grade in the course will be determined by
my best professional judgment of how good a scholar you show yourself to be in all the
above requirements, which are relatively equal in weight.
a) Term Research Paper. You will conduct a review of the literature in an area germane
to the field of global strategic management. At a minimum, your paper should (1) define
the area of your study and the fields of theory and research that make up this area, (2)
identify the past theory and research in the area, (3) evaluate the current state of
knowledge, theory, and practice in this area, and (4) indicate the future direction the field
should take (i.e., identify the unresolved issues and make suggestions for future theory and
research). You are encouraged to be creative in your approaches to this paper. The length
should be twenty to thirty pages, plus bibliography, in standard APA format.
(b) Class Participation. You are expected to have read all the required readings, and to
engage in a critical discussion of them in class. In a seminar setting, discussion and
disciplined exchange is crucial. Your active listening in this process is as valid as your
active participation.
(c) Final Examination. This examination will be in a one hour comprehensive format. It
will be closed book. The use of computers is encouraged.
IV. Reading Materials
Readings: The course readings will be made available to you during the course of the
term. A list is of these readings is in the course schedule in this syllabus.
Business Periodicals: It is recommended that you regularly read such current business
periodicals as: The Wall Street Journal and its international versions, Business Week, Asia
Week, The Economist , Forbes, Fortune, etc.
Journals: It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the most recent issues (onetwo
years) of the following journals:
Academy of Management Review
Academy of Management Journal
California Management Review
Harvard Business Review
Journal of International Business Studies
Journal of Management
Long Range Planning
Organizational Science
Sloan Management Review
Strategic Management Journal
Strategy Books. The following list of strategy books may be useful reference material.
Andrews, K. 1971. The concept of corporate strategy. Homewood: Irwin.
Ansoff, H.I. 1965. Corporate strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Barnard, C. 1938. The functions of the executive. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard
University Press.
Bartlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. 1989. Managing across borders: The transnational
solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Bartlett, C. A., Doz, Y. and Hedlund, G. (eds.) 1990. Managing the global firm.
London: Routeledge.
Brown, S. L., and Eisenhardt, K. M. 1998. Competing on the edge. Boston, MA:
Harvard Business School Press.
Caves, R. E. 1982. Multinational enterprise and economic analysis. Cambridge.
Chandler, A. D. 1962. Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of industrial
enterprise. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Christensen, C. M. 1997. The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause
great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Collins, J. G., and Porras, J. I. 1994. Built to last: Successful habits of visionary
companies. New York: Harper Business.
Contractor, F. J. and Lorange, P. (eds.) 1988. Cooperative strategies in international
business. Lexington: D. C. Heath.
D’Aveni, R. A. 1994. Hypercompetition: Managing the dynamics of strategic
maneuvering. New York: Free Press.
Day, G. S., Reibstein, D. J. and Gunther, R. (eds.) 1997. Wharton on dynamic
competitive strategy. New York: Wiley.
Doz, Y. 1986. Strategic management in multinational companies. New York:
Doz, Y., and Hamel, G. 1998. Alliance advantage: The art of creating value
through partnering. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Dunning, J. H. 1981. International production and the multinational enterprise.
London: Allen & Unwin.
Dunning, J. H. 1993. The globalization of business. London: Routledge.
Foster, R. N. 1986. Innovation: The attacker’s advantage. New York: Summit.
Garland, J., Farmer, R. N. and Taylor, M. 1990. International dimensions of
business policy and strategy (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent.
Gerlach, M. 1992. Alliance capitalism: The social organization of Japanese
business. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ghemawat, P. 1991. Commitment: The dynamic of strategy. New York: Free Press.
Goold, M., Campbell, A., and Alexander, M. 1994. Corporate-level strategy:
Creating value in the multibusiness company. New York: Wiley.
Grant, R. M. 2004. Contemporary strategy analysis (5th edition.). New York:
Blackwell Business.
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1994. Competing for the future. Boston: Harvard
Business School Press.
Itami, I. 1987. Mobilizing invisible assets. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Lawrence, P.R. and Lorsch, J. W. 1967. Organization and environment. Boston:
Harvard Business School Press.
Miles, R. E. and Snow, C. C. 1978. Organizational strategy, structure, and process.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mintzberg, H. 1994. The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: Free Press.
Mintzberg, H.., Ahlstrand, B., and Lampel, J. 1998. Strategy safari: A guided tour
through the wilds of strategic Management.. New York: Free Press.
Moore, J. F. 1996. The death of competition: Leadership and strategy in the age of
business ecosystems. New York: Wiley.
North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance.
Ohmae, K. 1990. The borderless world: power and strategy in the interlinked
economy. New York: Harper Business.
Ohmae, K. 1982. The mind of the strategist. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Oster, S. M. 1998. Modern competitive analysis (3rd edition). Cambridge: Oxford
University Press.
Penrose, E. T. 1959. The theory of the growth of the firm. New York: Wiley.
Porter, M. E. 1980. Competitive strategy. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. E. 1985. Competitive advantage. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. E. (ed.) 1986. Competition in global industries. Boston: Harvard
Business School Press.
Porter, M. E. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. New York: Free Press.
Prahalad, C. K. and Doz, Y. 1987. The multinational mission: balancing local
demands and global vision. New York : Free Press
Pucik, V. R., Tichey, N. M. and Barnett, C. K. (eds.) 1992. Globalizing
management: creating and leading the competitive organization. New York:
Quinn, J. B. 1992. Intelligent enterprise: A knowledge and service based paradigm
for industry. New York: Tree Press.
Root, F. R. and Visudtibhan, K. (eds.) 1992. International strategic management:
challenges and opportunities. Washington: Taylor & Francis.
Rumelt, R. P. 1974. Strategy, structure, and economic performance. Boston:
Harvard Business School Press.
Rumelt, R. P., Schendel, D. E. and Teece, D. J. 1994. Fundamental issues in
strategy: a research agenda. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Scherer, F. M. & Ross, D. 1990 (3rd edition). Industrial market structure and
economic performance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Schnaars, S. P. 1994. Managing innovation strategies: How late entrants seize
markets f4rom pioneers. New York: Free Press.
Stacy, R., Griffin, D. and Shaw, P. 2000. Complexity and management. London:
Stopford, J. M. and Wells, L. T. Jr. 1972. Managing the multinational enterprise.
London: Longmans.
Thompson, J. D. 1967. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tushman, M. L. and Anderson, P. 1997. Managing strategic innovation and
change. New York: Oxford.
Van der Heijden, K. 1996. Scenarios: The art of strategic conversation. New York:
Vernon-Wortzel, H. and Wortzel, L. (eds.) 1997. Strategic management in a global
economy. New York: Wiley.
Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and hierarchies. New York: Free Press.
Williamson, O. E. 1985. The economic institutions of capitalism. New York: Free Press.
Yip, G. S. 1992. Total global strategy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
DBA 822 – Seminar in Strategy and International Business
Fall 2015 Thursdays 6:50-9:50
9/03 Introductions, Orientation, and follow-up discussion –
Closed Book, closed notes written exercise.
You have two hours and two pages to describe what strategy is. Do not prepare for
this exercise by referring to anything other than what you “know” in your head
already. (Format: two single-sided letter-sized pages maximum – each singlespaced,
10-point font and 1” margins minimum). Bring enough printed copies for
the other participants in the class to the first class session.
If you have any questions on this assignment – please contact me.
9/10 A Starting Point for Strategy
*Andrews, K. R. 1971. The importance of being general, The concept of corporate
strategy. In K. R. Andrews, The concept of corporate strategy, chapter 1& 2,
pp. 1-58. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Porter, M. E. 1981. The contribution of industrial organization to strategic
management, Academy of Management Review, 6, 609-620.
Mintzberg, H. 1985. Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management
Journal, 28, 257-272.
Hansen, G. S. and Wernerfelt, B. 1989. Determinants of firm performance: the
relative importance of economic and organizational factors. Strategic
Management Journal, 10, 339-412.
*D’Aveni, R. A. 1994. Hypercompetition: managing the dynamics of strategic
maneuvering, Introduction. pp. 1-36. New York: Macmillan.
Collis, D. J. & Montgomery, C. A. 1995. Competing on resources: strategy in the
1990s. Harvard Business Review, 73, 4, 118-130.
Eisenhardt, K. M. & Galunic, D. C. 2000. Coevolving: At last a way to make
synergies work. Harvard Business Review, 78, 1, 91-101.
9/17 A Starting Point for International Strategy
Fouraker, L. E. and Stopford, J. M. 1968. Organizational structure and the
multinational strategy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 13: 47-64.
*Porter, M. E. 1986. Competition in global industries: a conceptual framework. In
M. E. Porter (ed.), Competition in global industries (pp. 15-60). Boston, MA:
Harvard Business School Press.
Ghoshal, S. 1987. Global strategy: an organizing framework. Strategic
Management Journal, 8, 425-440.
Dunning, J. H. 1988. The eclectic paradigm of international production: A
restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business
Studies, 19, 1-31.
Ohmae, K. 1989. Managing in a borderless world. Harvard Business Review, 67,
3, 152-161
Doz, Y. and Prahalad, C. K. 1991. Managing DMNC: a search for a paradigm,
Strategic Management Journal, 12, Summer Special Issue, 145-164.
9/24 Michael Porter & I/O Economics
Porter, M. E. 1979. The structure within industries and companies’ performance.
Review of Economics and Statistics, 61, 214-227.
*Porter, M. E. 1985. Competitive strategy: the core concepts. In M. E. Porter,
Competitive Advantage, Chapter 1, pp. 1-30. New York: Free Press.
*Porter, M. E. 1985. The value chain and competitive advantage. In M. E. Porter,
Competitive Advantage, Chapter 2, pp. 33-61. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. E. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. Harvard Business
Review, 68, 2, 73-93.
Porter, M. E. 1991. Towards a dynamic theory of strategy. Strategic Management
Journal, 12, 95-177.
Porter, M. E. 1996. What is strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), 61-80.
10/01 Competencies, Capabilities and Resources
Wernerfelt, B. 1984. A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management
Journal, 5, 171-180.
Wernerfelt, B. 1995. The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after.
Strategic Management Journal, 16, 171-174.
Prahalad, C. K. & Hamel, G. 1990. The core competence of the corporation.
Harvard Business Review, 68, 3, 79-91.
Barney, Jay. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of
Management, 17, 1, 99-120.
Conner, Kathleen R. 1991. A historical comparison of resource-based theory and
five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: do we have a
new theory of the firm? Journal of Management, 17, 1, 121-154.
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., and Shuen, A. 1997. Dynamic capabilities and strategic
management. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 509-534.
Eisenhardt, K. M., and Martin, J. A. 2000. Dynamic capabilities: What are they?
Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1105-1121.
10/08 Global Strategies
Kogut, B. 1985a. Designing global strategies: comparative and competitive value
added chains. Sloan Management Review, 26, 4, 15-28.
Kogut, B. 1985b. Designing global strategies: profiting form operational
flexibility, Sloan Management Review, 27, 1, 27-38.
Bartlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. 1987a. Managing across borders: new strategic
requirements. Sloan Management Review, 28,4, 7-17
Bartlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. 1987b. Managing across borders: new
organizational responses, Sloan Management Review, 29,1, 43-53.
Kogut, B. 1989. A note on global strategies. Strategic Management Journal, 10,
Bartlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. 1991. Global strategic management: Impact on the
new frontiers of strategy research. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 5-16.
Rangan, S. 1998. Do multinationals operate flexibly? Theory and evidence.
Journal of International Business, 29, 2, 217-237.
Roth, K. 1992. International configuration and coordination archetypes for mediumsized
firms in global industries. Journal of International Business Studies, 23,
10/15 Emerging Markets
Khanna, T., and Palepu, K. 1997. Why focused strategies may be wrong in
emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 75, 4, 41-51.
Khanna, T. and Rivkin, J.W. 2001. Estimating the performance effects of business
groups in emerging markets. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 45-74.
Khanna, T., Palepu, K., and Sinha, J. 2005. Strategies that fit emerging markets.
Harvard Business Review, 83, 6, 63-76.
Khanna, T., and Palepu, K. 2006. Emerging giants: Building world-class
companies in developing countries. Harvard Business Review, 84, 10, 60-69.
Ricart, J. E., Enright, M. J., Ghemawat, P., Hart, S. L. and Khanna, T. 2004. New
frontiers in international strategy. Journal of International Business Studies,
35, 175-200.
Hermelo, F. D., And Vassolo, R. 2010. Institutional development and
hypercompetition in emerging economies. Strategic Management Journal,
10/22 Prahalad and Hamel
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1985. Do you really have a global strategy. Harvard
Business Review, 63, 4, 139-148.
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1989. Strategic Intent. Harvard Business Review, 67,
3, 63-76.
Prahalad, C. K. & Hamel, G. 1990. The core competence of the corporation.
Harvard Business Review, 68, 3, 79-91.
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1991. Corporate imagination and expeditionary
marketing. Harvard Business Review, 69, 4, 81-92.
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1993. Strategy as stretch and leverage. Harvard
Business Review, 71, 2, 75-84.
Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. 1994. Competing for the future. Harvard Business
Review, 72, 4,122-128.
10/29 Strategy Process
Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. 1974. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and
Biases. Science, 185, 1124-1131.
Eisenhardt, K. M., & Zbaracki, M. J. 1992. Strategic decision making. Strategic
Management Journal, 13 (Special Issue Winter), 17-37.
Hart, S., & Banbury, C. 1994. How strategy-making processes can make a
difference. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 251-269.
Mintzberg, H. 1994. The fall and rise of strategic planning. Harvard Business
Review, 72, 1, 107-114.
Brews, P. J, and Hunt, M. R. 1999. Learning to plan and planning to learn:
Resolving the planning school / learning school debate. Strategic Management
Journal, 20, 889-913
D’Aveni, R. A., Dagnino, G. B., Smith, K. 2010. The age of temporary
advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 1371-1385.
Sargut, G. and McGrath, R. G. 2011. Learning to live with complexity. Harvard
Business Review, 89, 9/10, 68-78.
11/05 Diversification
Miller, D. 1986. Configurations of strategy and structure: Toward a synthesis.
Strategic Management Journal, 7: 233-249.
Miller, D. 1996. Configurations revisited. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 505-
Doty, D. H., Glick, W. H., and Huber, G.P. 1993. Fit, equifinality, and
organizational effectiveness: A test of two configurational theories. Academy
of Management Journal, 36: 1196-1250.
Prahalad, C. K. and Bettis, R. A. 1986. The dominant logic: a new linkage between
diversity and performance. Strategic Management Journal, 7, 485-501.
Bettis, R. A. and Prahalad, C. K. 1995. The dominant logic: retrospective and
extension. Strategic Management Journal, 16, 5-14.
Campbell, A., Goold, M., & Alexander, M. 1995. The value of the parent
company. California Management Review, 38, 1, 79-97.
Robins, J. & Wiersema, M. F. 1995. A resource-based approach to the
multibusiness firm: empirical analysis of portfolio interrelationships and
corporate financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 16, 277-299.
11/12 Strategy and Structure
Ghoshal, S. and Bartlett, C. A. 1990. The multinational corporation as an
interorganizational network. Academy of Management Review, 15, 4, 603-
Ghoshal, S. and Nohria, N. 1993. Horses for courses: organizational forms for
multinational corporations, Sloan Management Review, 34, 2, 7-22.
O’Donnell, S. W. 2000. Managing foreign subsidiaries: Agents of headquarters, or
an interdependent network? Strategic Management Journal, 21, 525-548.
*Hammond, T. H. 1994. Structure, strategy, and the agenda of the firm. In
Rumelt, R. P., Schendel, D. E., and Teece, D. J. (eds.), Fundamental issues in
strategy: a research agenda. 97-154. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School
Fredrickson, J. W. 1986. The strategic decision process and organizational
structure. Academy of Management Review, 11, 280-297.
Chandler, A. D. Jr. 1991. The functions of the HQ unit in the multibusiness firm.
Strategic Management Journal, 12, 31-50.
11/19 Management and Strategy
Collins, J. C. and Porrus, J. I. 1996. Building your company’s vision, Harvard
Business Review, 74, 5, 65-77.
Chattopadhyay, P., Glick, W. H., Miller, C. C. and Huber, G. P. 1999.
Determinants of executive beliefs: Comparing functional conditioning and
social influence. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 763-789.
Bartlet, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. 2002, Building competitive advantage through
people, Sloan Management Review, 43, 2, 34-41.
Ghoshal, S. 2005. Bad management theories are destroying good management
practices, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4, 1, 75-91.
Gratton, L. and Ghoshal, S. 2005. Beyond best practice, Sloan Management
Review, 46, 3, 49-57.
Birkenshaw, J., Hamel, G. and Mol, M. J. 2008. Management innovation. Academy
of Management Review, 33, 4, 825-845.
Crossland, C. and Hambrick, D. C. 2011. Differences in managerial discretion
across countries: How nation-level institutions affect the degree to which
CEOs matter. Strategic Management Journal, 32, 797-819.
11/26 Thanksgiving Break
12/05 Leadership
Zaleznik, A. 1977. Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business
Review, 55, 3. 67-78.
Kotter, J. P. 1990. What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review. 68, 3, 103-
Heifetz, R. A. and Laurie, D. L. 1997. The work of leadership. Harvard Business
Review, 75, 1, 124 – 134.
Goffee, R. and Jones, G. 2000. Why should anyone be led by you? Harvard
Business Review, 78, 5, 63 – 70.
Collins, J. 2001. Level 5 leadership. Harvard Business Review, 79, 1, 66-76.
Goleman, D. 2000. Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78, 2,
Martin, R. 2007. How successful leaders think. Harvard Business Review, 85, 6,
12/ 12 Social Values and Strategy
Wood, D. 1991. Corporate social performance revisited, Academy of Management
Review, 16, 4, 691-718.
Hart, S. L. 1995. A natural-resource-based view of the firm. Academy of
Management Review, 20, 4, 986–1014.
Porter, M. E. and Kramer, M. R. 2002. The competitive advantage of corporate
philanthropy, Harvard Business Review, 80, 1,
Porter, M. E. and Kramer, M. R. 2006. Strategy & society: The link between
competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility, Harvard Business
Review, 84, 6, 78-92.
Parmar, B. L., Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Purnell, L., De Colle, S., 2010,
Stakeholder theory: The state of the art, The Academy of Management
Annals, 4, 1, 403–445.
Hart, S. L. and McDowell, G. 2011. A natural-resource-based view of the firm:
Fifteen years after, Journal of Management, 37, 5, 1464-1479.
Porter, M. E. and Kramer, M. R. 2011. Creating shared value: How to reinvent
capitalism – and unleash a wave of innovation and growth, Harvard Business
Review, 89, 1/2, 62-77.
Date to be determined – Last Class & Final Prep: In Retrospect
Hoskisson, R. E, Hitt, M. A., Wan W. P. and Yiu, D. 1999. Theory and research in
strategic management: Swings of a pendulum. Journal of Management, 25, 3,
Ramos-Rodriguez, A.-R. and Ruiz-Navarro, Jose. 2004. Changes in the intellectual
structure of strategic management research: A bibliometric study of the
Strategic Management Journal, 1980-2000. Strategic Management Journal, 25,
Nag, R., Hambrick, D.C. and Chen, M.-J. 2007. What is strategic management,
really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field. Strategic
Management Journal, 28, 935-955.
Nerur, S.P., Rasheed, A.A. and Natarajan, V. 2008. The intellectual structure of the
strategic management field: An author co-citation analysis. Strategic
Management Journal, 29, 319-316.